||Low-band 5G 600 - 700 MHz /Mid-band 5G 2.5-3.7 GHz / High-band 5G 25 - 39 GHz and higher frequencies up to 80GHz
||Range is correlated with frequency bands - low band 5G has similar range to 4G (tens of kilometers), Mid-band 5G has several km range. High-band 5G has hundreds of meters up to 1.5 km range.
||Low-band 5G (600 - 700 MHz) giving download speeds a little higher than 4G at the moment: 30-250 Mbps. Mid-band 5G (2.5-3.7 GHz) currently allowing speeds of 100-900 Mbps. High-band 5G (25 - 39 GHz and higher frequencies up to 80GHz) achieves, at the mom
||Personal, Single building, Campus, LAN, Software defined WAN (SD WAN)
||Encryption is evolved from 4G. It is more complex and based on multi-layer & multi-criteria approach. Generally, the level of 5G security is not defined by the number of specified security mechanisms. A multi-stakeholder approach that involves operator
||Expectations are that 5G will expand boundaries in all domains of modern life such as travelling, driving, production efficiency improvements, smart systems deployment such as smart cities with smart homes, buildings, hospitals, factories, public safety,
||The first phase of 5G specifications is defined in 3GPP Release 15. 5G is equipped with new air interface that supports heterogeneous access networks and handles variable bandwidths. Packet core network upgrades are also implemented, where traditional and
||12.8 Kbit/s - 60kbit/s
||Peer to peer, Star, Mesh, broadcast, ANT - FS, shared cluster.
||ANT supports an 8-byte (64-bit) network key and 128-bit AES encryption for ANT master and slave channels. If further security is required, authentication and encryption can be implemented through the application level.
ANT devices may use the public net
||ANT in residential, commercial and industrial sensing, control applications.
ANT + predominantly in health and wellness - blood pressure monitoring, fitness, cycling, running, continuous glucose monitoring, emergency response alerts, audio control, hear
||ANT is a purpose-built ultra-low-power wireless networking protocol operating at 2.4GHz. ANT+ is an implementation of ANT and is an ecosystem of interoperable products built on device profiles.
ANT devices may use any RF frequency from 2400MHz to 2524MHz
||Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
||Several security modes are recognized in Bluetooth technology, and generally each version of Bluetooth standard supports some of them. These modes are mutually different according to the point of security initiation in Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth devices
||Bluetooth technology is used for data streaming or file exchange between mobile phones, PCs, printers, headsets, joysticks, mice, keyboards, stereo audio or in the automotive industry.
||Bluetooth is wireless communications technology based on the IEEE 802.15.1 protocol. Bluetooth technology is supported by 1 master & up to 7 slave nodes, while the number of slave nodes is not limited by specification in BLE networks. In the most recent
||BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) or Bluetooth Smart (Bluetooth 5, 4.2)
||Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
||<1Mbps ≈ (n x 100kbps)
||In compliance with the Bluetooth Specification Version 5.0, two Security modes are implemented in BLE: Security mode 1 and Security mode 2.
BLE security mode 1 has 4 layers:
1) No security (without authentication and without encryption).
||BLE technology is nowadays an indispensable part of mobile phones, PCs and other types of devices applicable in gaming, sports, wellness, industrial, medical, home and automation electronics. BLE provides wireless connectivity that enables home automatio
||It is important to notice that Bluetooth and BLE are not compatible technologies. For example, channel bandwidth in Bluetooth technology is 1MHz and in BLE is 2MHz, number of channels in Bluetooth is 79, while BLE is supported by 40 channels. Moreover, th
||GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)
||≈ 35km max for GSM and ≈ 200km max for HSPA
||Typical download: 35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS), 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE)
||Personal, Single building, Campus,
||Authentication algorithms were not very strong in 2G networks and were based on master security key . In 3G wireless standard (3GPP based) , the authentication mechanism was enhanced to become a two-way process. In addition, 128-bit encryption and integri
||2G offered digital communications. 3G has been generic data cellular mobile technology that provided broadband transmissions. 4G is the first all IP cellular data communication technology with dominant data transfer services and IoT support capabilitie
||Expectations are that the IoT ecosystem and its evolution support will be the most important criteria for further development of cellular mobile technologies.
||≈ 20 kbps and 40 kbps (BPSK ), ≈ 250 kbps (O-QPSK with DSSS)
||Star, Mesh, peer-to-peer
||The IEEE 802.15.4 standard protects information at the Medium Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the OSI Reference Model. The implemented cryptographic mechanism in this standard is based on the symmetric-key cryptography and uses keys that are provided by
||Typical use cases are smart homes and buildings i.e. home security, lighting control, air conditioning and heating systems; industrial automation; automotive sensing; education; consumer electronic devices and personal computer accessories.
||The IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines the
interconnection protocol for the low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). This standard provides short range wireless communications between battery - powered nodes. The power consumption in IEEE 802.15.
||≈ 250 kbps
||ISA 100.11a standard is embedded with integrity checks and optional encryption at data link layer of the OSI reference model. Moreover, security mechanisms are provided in transport layer. too. 128 bits keys are used in both transport and data link layers
||The most important use cases are reliable monitoring and alerting, asset management, predictive maintenance and condition monitoring, open - loop control and closed loop control industrial applications.
||ISA 100.11a low data rate connectivity is supported with increased security and system management levels. In compliance with best practices, optimal number of nodes in the network is 50-100.
||≈ 250 kbps
||6LoWPAN has implemented AES-128 link layer security - which is defined in IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. This security mechanism provides link authentication and encryption. Additional security features are enabled by the transport layer security mechanisms ove
||There are many applications where 6LoWPAN is being used: automation, industrial monitoring, smart grids (enable smart meters and other devices to build a micro mesh network), smart homes and smart buildings.
||6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks), is a low power wireless mesh network. It is specified in IETF standard RFC 8138. Every node in the 6LoWPAN network is embedded with its own IPv6 address. This allows the node (typically sensor
||433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe), 915 MHz (Australia and North America) and 923 MHz (Asia)
||≈ 0.3-50 kbps
||Star of Stars
||The fundamental properties that are supported in LoRaWAN security are mutual authentication, integrity protection and confidentiality.
Mutual authentication is established between a LoRaWAN end-device and the LoRaWAN network as part of the network join p
||Some representative LoRaWAN use cases are smart homes and buildings, smart city applications and utility companies , smart metering, agriculture, civil infrastructures and industrial facilities as well.
||LoRaWAN is a Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology. It provides wireless, low-cost and secure bi-directional communication for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. LoRaWAN is optimized for long range communication, low power consumption and is
||3GPP / GSMA
||850-900 MHz (GSM bands)
||70 kbps (GSMK), 240 kbps (8PSK)
||Proprietary - The EC-GSM- IoT Group is Open to GSMA Members and Associate Members, however all members must positively contribute to the Group's high-level objectives, including promoting EC-GSM- IoT technology and encouraging new service and applicati
||The EC-GSM-IoT has improved security, compared to the existing GSM/GPRS networks - offers integrity protection, mutual authentication and implements stronger ciphering algorithms.
||Battery life of up to 10 years can be supported for a wide range of use cases. Coverage extension beyond GSM enables coverage of challenging indoor and outdoor locations or remote areas in which sensors are deployed for agriculture or infrastructure monit
||Extended coverage GSM IoT (EC-GSM-IoT) is a standard-based Low Power Wide Area technology specified by 3GPP Rel. 13. It is based on eGPRS and designed as a high capacity, long range, low energy and low complexity cellular system for IoT communications. Th