Internet of Things (IoT) Wireless Protocols

Wireless technology / standard 5G
Organization that manages the technology / standard 3GPP
URL of the organization https://www.3gpp.org/
URL of the standard specification https://www.3gpp.org/dynareport/SpecList.htm?release=Rel-15&tech=4
Frequency Low-band 5G 600 – 700 MHz /Mid-band 5G 2.5-3.7 GHz / High-band 5G 25 – 39 GHz  and higher frequencies up to 80GHz
Approximate Range Range is correlated with frequency bands – low band 5G has similar range to 4G (tens of kilometers), Mid-band 5G has several km range.  High-band 5G has hundreds of meters up to 1.5 km range.
Data Rate Low-band 5G (600 – 700 MHz) giving download speeds a little higher than 4G at the moment: 30-250 Mbps. Mid-band 5G (2.5-3.7 GHz) currently allowing speeds of 100-900 Mbps. High-band 5G (25 – 39 GHz and higher frequencies up to 80GHz) achieves,  at the moment downloading speeds of 1 – 3Gbps.
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Personal, Single building, Campus, LAN, Software defined WAN (SD WAN)
Security Encryption is evolved from 4G. It is more complex and  based on  multi-layer & multi-criteria approach. Generally, the level of 5G security is not defined by the number of specified security mechanisms.  A multi-stakeholder approach that involves operators, vendors, regulators, policy makers and representatives of 5G subscribers (from different ecosystem segments) is fundamental to the security baseline of trustworthy, cost-efficient and manageable 5G networks.
Common use Expectations are that 5G will expand boundaries in all domains of modern life such as traveling, driving, production efficiency improvements, smart systems deployment such as smart cities with smart homes, buildings, hospitals, factories, public safety, services management etc. The small cells structure of 5G networks improves the indoor coverage, compared to other cellular communication technologies and at the same time influences the evolution of different HD enterprise services, home VR, holographic communication, telemedicine and other new services.
Comments The first phase of 5G specifications is defined in 3GPP Release 15. 5G is equipped with new air interface that supports heterogeneous access networks and handles variable bandwidths. Packet core network upgrades are also implemented, where traditional and mobile services share an infrastructure (cloud data centers) for service delivery and operational efficiency.
Wireless technology / standard 6LoWPAN
Organization that manages the technology / standard IETF
URL of the organization https://www.ietf.org/
URL of the standard specification https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8138
Frequency 2.4 GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 100m
Data Rate ≈ 250 kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building
Security 6LoWPAN has implemented AES-128 link layer security – which is defined in IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. This security mechanism provides link authentication and encryption. Additional  security features are enabled by the transport layer security mechanisms over TCP, as defined in RFC 5246 standard .The transport layer security mechanisms over UDP are supported too – in compliance with RFC 6347 standard.
Common use There are many applications where 6LoWPAN is being used: automation, industrial monitoring, smart grids (enable smart meters and other devices to build a micro mesh network), smart homes and smart buildings.
Comments 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks), is a low power wireless mesh network. It is specified in IETF standard RFC 8138. Every node in the 6LoWPAN network is embedded with its own IPv6 address. This allows the node (typically sensor) to connect directly with the Internet using open standards.
Wireless technology / standard ANT+ Alliance
Organization that manages the technology / standard Garmin
URL of the organization http://www.garmin.com/en-US
URL of the standard specification https://www.thisisant.com/
Frequency 2.4GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 30m
Data Rate 12.8 Kbit/s – 60kbit/s
Power Draw Low
Topology Peer to peer, Star, Mesh, broadcast, ANT – FS, shared cluster.
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building
Security ANT supports an 8-byte (64-bit) network key and 128-bit AES encryption for ANT master and slave channels. If further security is required, authentication and encryption can be implemented through the application level.

ANT devices may use the public network key, a private network key, or a privately owned managed network key; but may not use the ANT+ network key, which is reserved for ANT+ devices.

Common use ANT in residential, commercial and industrial sensing, control applications.
ANT + predominantly in health and wellness – blood pressure monitoring,  fitness, cycling, running, continuous glucose monitoring, emergency response alerts, audio control, heart rate measurements, environment (temperature), GPS, speed & distance  measurements,  etc. (https://developer.garmin.com/ant-program/help/)ANT-FS (File share) and FIT (Flexible and Interoperable Data Transfer)   – with the ANT-FS tools  (including the FIT SDK) it is enabled to create and share files between ANT devices.
Comments ANT is a purpose-built ultra-low-power wireless networking protocol operating at 2.4GHz. ANT+ is an implementation of ANT and is an ecosystem of interoperable products built on device profiles.

ANT devices may use any RF frequency from 2400MHz to 2524MHz, with the exception of 2457MHz, which is reserved for ANT+ devices. Hierarchical wireless communication with master-slave nodes in each of 8 available wireless channels.  ANT+ is an application that’s been built on top of ANT. It’s a collection of what we call Device Profiles, built for very specific use cases, each of which has a specification of how to transmit the information related to that use case over the air using ANT.

Wireless technology / standard BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) or Bluetooth Smart (Bluetooth 5, 4.2)
Organization that manages the technology / standard Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
URL of the organization https://www.bluetooth.com/
URL of the standard specification https://www.bluetooth.org/DocMan/handlers/DownloadDoc.ashx?doc_id=421043
Frequency 2.4GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 100m
Data Rate <1Mbps ≈ (n x 100kbps)
Power Draw Low
Topology Scatternet
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single building
Security In compliance with the Bluetooth Specification Version 5.0, two Security modes are implemented in BLE: Security mode 1 and Security mode 2.

BLE security mode 1 has 4 layers:
1) No security (without authentication and without encryption).
2) Unauthenticated pairing with encryption (AES-CMAC encryption or AES-128 -is implemented in this layer [DU], during communications when the devices are unpaired).
3) Authenticated pairing with encryption.
4) Authenticated BLE secure connections pairing with encryption (each time after the pairing is initiated Elliptic Curve Diffie-Helman key agreement protocol is used for key exchange BLE secure connections).

BLE security mode 2 has two layers:
1) Unauthenticated pairing with data signing.
2) Authenticated pairing with data signing.

Common use BLE technology is nowadays an  indispensable part of mobile phones, PCs and other types of devices applicable in gaming, sports, wellness, industrial, medical, home and automation electronics. BLE provides wireless connectivity that enables home automation via the control of lights – smart bulbs and outlets, smoke detectors, cameras and other security systems, thermostats, video door bells, smart digital locks, hubs and controllers, different assistant devices, universal remotes, gaming consoles, TVs, etc.
Comments It is important to notice that Bluetooth and BLE are not compatible technologies. For example, channel bandwidth in Bluetooth technology is 1MHz and in BLE is 2MHz, number of channels in Bluetooth is 79, while BLE is supported by 40 channels. Moreover, they have different waveforms, transmission power, network organization etc. Bluetooth Versions 4.1/4.2/5.0 support both BLE and Bluetooth standards.
Wireless technology / standard Bluetooth
Organization that manages the technology / standard Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
URL of the organization https://www.bluetooth.com/
URL of the standard specification http://www.bluetooth.org/docman/handlers/DownloadDoc.ashx?doc_id=40560
Frequency 2.4GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 50m
Data Rate ≈ 2Mbps
Power Draw Medium
Topology Scatternet
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single building
Security Several security modes are recognized in Bluetooth technology, and generally each version of Bluetooth standard supports some of them. These modes are mutually different according to the point of security initiation in Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth devices must operate in one of four available modes from mode 1 (insecure mode) to mode 4 -where security procedures are initiated after link setup. Secure Simple Pairing uses Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH) techniques for key exchange and link key generation in mode 4. This mode was introduced at Bluetooth v2.1 + EDR.
Common use Bluetooth technology is used for data streaming or file exchange between mobile phones, PCs, printers, headsets, joysticks, mice, keyboards, stereo audio or in the automotive industry.
Comments Bluetooth is wireless communications technology based on the IEEE 802.15.1 protocol. Bluetooth technology is supported by  1 master & up to 7 slave nodes, while the number of slave nodes is not limited by specification in BLE networks. In the most recent Bluetooth Version 5.0, the new wave-forms and coding techniques are implemented in order to achieve longer ranges, less power consumption and latency, better robustness and support for higher number of subscribers in a single Bluetooth network.
Wireless technology / standard DASH7 Alliance Protocol (D7A or D7AP)
Organization that manages the technology / standard DASH7 Alliance
URL of the organization https://dash7-alliance.org/
URL of the standard specification https://dash7-alliance.org/download-specification/
Frequency 433MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 2km
Data Rate 167kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security Similarly to 802.15.4, AES-CBC is used for authentication and AES-CCM for authentication and encryption.
Common use Some representative DASH7 use cases are access control, smart energy, location based services, mobile advertising, industry automation, logistics,  building access, mobile payments, ticketing, etc.
Comments D7A complies with the ISO/IEC 18000-7 standard. ISO/IEC 18000-7 is an open standard for the license-free 433 MHz ISM band air-interface for
wireless communications. The 433 MHz frequency provides  D7A with long propagation distance and better penetration.
There are four different device classes defined in D7A (Dash7 Alliance Protocol):
• Blinker – it only transmits and does not use a receiver.
• Endpoint – it can transmit and receive the data. It also supports wake-up events.
• Sub controller – it is a full featured device (not always active).Sub controller uses wake on scan cycles similar to end points.
• Gateway – connects D7A network with the other network.It will always be online and  always listens unless it is transmitting.
Wireless technology / standard DECT ULE
Organization that manages the technology / standard ETSI
URL of the organization https://www.ulealliance.org/organization
URL of the standard specification https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/102900_102999/10293901/01.01.01_60/ts_10293901v010101p.pdf
Frequency 1880MHz – 1900MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 300m
Data Rate 1Mbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single building
Security DECT ULE devices use a combination of general DECT security procedures and ULE specific security procedures. General DECT security procedures are device registration (subscription), device and base authentication, key generation (including keys for ULE use), encryption of voice calls, service calls and all non-ULE data calls, device de-registration (termination).

Authentication is using DSAA2 (128 bit key) algorithm and encryption is using DSC (64 bit cipher) or DSC2 (128 bit cipher).

ULE-specific security procedures are used for: bi-directional and uni-directional data packet transport. Compared to standard DECT encryption some enhanced solutions are available for DECT ULE, like 128-bits AES-CCM encryption, re-keying during all calls (at least once per minute), early encryption (of MAC connection without the need for CIPHERREQUEST message) and some additional subscription requirements (limits how long the base will be open for user registration).

Common use DECT ULE is new technology developed for different IoT use cases like home, office and industrial  automation, control and monitoring systems, medical care and security systems.
Comments DECT Ultra Low Energy (ULE) is a new technology based on DECT and intended for Machine-to-Machine communications such as Home and Industrial automation. DECT ULE standard has advantages of long distance range, no interference and large data rate/bandwidth up to 1 Mbps. It provides backwards compatibility with standard DECT systems and is supported by Panasonic – one of the most representative DECT systems manufacturers in the world.
Wireless technology / standard DigiMesh
Organization that manages the technology / standard DigiMesh
URL of the organization https://www.digi.com
URL of the standard specification https://www.digi.com/resources/documentation/digidocs/pdfs/90001506.pdf
Frequency 2.4GHz/900 MHz (USA)/868 MHz (EU)
Approximate Range ≈ 100m
Data Rate 250 kbps (2.4) 40kbps (915) 20kbps (868)
Power Draw Low
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building or WAN
Security DigiMesh security features are 128-bit AES encryption and 256-bit AES – available on some products, such as XBee3 and XTend. One command (KZ) sets a password that prevents intruders from sending or receiving unsecured remote  AT commands. For added security, this can be used on a device-by-device basis.  Simplified preset encryption key, with two configurable  parameters.
Common use Some representative DigiMesh use cases are monitoring in  food safety,  facility and pharmacy domains, supply chains applicability, transportation and logistics, environmental monitoring etc.
Comments DigiMesh is a proprietary peer-to-peer wireless networking topology developed by Digi International. The protocol allows for time synchronized sleeping nodes/routers and battery powered operations with  low-power consumption.
Wireless technology / standard EC-GSM-IoT
Organization that manages the technology / standard 3GPP / GSMA
URL of the organization https://www.3gpp.org/
https://www.gsma.com/aboutus/
URL of the standard specification http://www.gsma.com/iot/extended-coverage-gsm-internet-of-things-ec-gsm-iot/
Frequency 850-900 MHz (GSM bands)
Approximate Range ≈ 15km
Data Rate 70 kbps (GSMK), 240 kbps (8PSK)
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Proprietary  –  The EC-GSM- IoT Group is Open to GSMA Members and Associate Members, however all members must positively contribute to the Group’s high-level objectives, including promoting  EC-GSM- IoT technology and encouraging new service and application development.
Intended Use WAN
Security The EC-GSM-IoT has improved security, compared to the existing GSM/GPRS networks – offers integrity protection, mutual authentication and implements stronger ciphering algorithms.
Common use Battery life of up to 10 years can be supported for a wide range of use cases. Coverage extension beyond GSM enables coverage of challenging indoor and outdoor locations or remote areas in which sensors are deployed for agriculture or infrastructure monitoring use cases. Moreover, the coexistence of this technology with other cellular technologies is supported.
Comments Extended coverage GSM IoT (EC-GSM-IoT) is a standard-based Low Power Wide Area technology specified by 3GPP Rel. 13. It is based on eGPRS and designed as a high capacity, long range, low energy and low complexity cellular system for IoT communications. The EC-GSM-IoT technology implementation is based on software upgrades of the existing GSM networks.
Wireless technology / standard EnOcean
Organization that manages the technology / standard EnOcean
URL of the organization https://www.enocean.com/en/
URL of the standard specification https://www.enocean-alliance.org/specifications/
Frequency 902 MHz/928.35 MHz/868.3 MHz/315 MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 30m (outdoor 300m)
Data Rate 125kbps
Power Draw “Battery Free”
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building
Security The unique 32-bit identification number (ID) of the standard Enocean modules  cannot be changed or copied – it is the protection against duplication. This authentication method already offers field-proven secure and reliable communication in building automation. For applications requesting additional data security, the security mode protects battery less wireless communication with enhanced security measures to prevent replay or eavesdropping attacks and forging of messages. One feature is a maximum 24-bit rolling code (RC) incremented with each telegram which is used to calculate a maximum 32-bit cypher-based message authentication code (CMAC). The CMAC uses the AES 128 encryption algorithm. Another mechanism is the encryption of data packets by the transmitter. The data is encrypted using the AES algorithm with a 128-bit key.
Common use The EnOcean wireless standard (ISO/ IEC 14543-3-1X) in sub 1GHz is optimized for use in buildings, as a radio range of 30m indoors is possible. Enocean representative use cases are smart lighting, temperature and  air quality monitoring, positioning and safety systems, smart metering, different  actuators and controllers, gateway and building management systems, etc. applicable to smart homes, smart offices or smart buildings.
Comments The EnOcean wireless standard is geared to wireless sensors and wireless sensor networks with ultra-low power consumption. It also includes sensor networks that utilize energy harvesting technology to draw energy from their surroundings – for example from motion, light or temperature differences. This principle enables electronic control systems to be used that work independently of an external power supply.
Wireless technology / standard GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)
Organization that manages the technology / standard 3GPP
URL of the organization https://www.3gpp.org/
URL of the standard specification https://www.3gpp.org/specifications/releases
Frequency 700/800/8508900/1800/1900/2100/2300/2500/2600MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 35km max for GSM and ≈ 200km max for HSPA
Data Rate Typical download: 35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS), 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE)
Power Draw High
Topology Cellular
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Personal, Single building, Campus,
Security Authentication algorithms were not very strong in 2G networks and were based on master security key . In 3G wireless standard (3GPP based) , the authentication mechanism was enhanced to become a two-way process. In addition, 128-bit encryption and integrity keys were utilized to create stronger security. Some mechanisms were introduced to ensure freshness of the cipher/integrity keys.

In 4G LTE, further security improvements were introduced over 3GPP. Unique identifiers (ID) were added for an end-mobile device (UE) . Secure signaling between the UE and MME (Mobile Management Entity) was added. Finally, security measures were put in place for interworking between 3GPP networks and trusted non-3GPP users – using for example, the EAP-AKA (UMTS Authentication and Key Agreement) protocol.

Common use 2G  offered digital communications. 3G has been generic data cellular mobile technology that provided broadband transmissions.  4G is the first all IP cellular data communication technology with dominant  data transfer services and IoT support capabilities. Today, there are many  module solutions available at the market, supporting all cellular technologies from 2G to 4G, in order to provide necessary connectivity for IoT services.
Comments Expectations are that the IoT ecosystem and its evolution support will be the most important criteria for further development of cellular mobile technologies.
Wireless technology / standard HART
Organization that manages the technology / standard HART Communication Foundation
URL of the organization https://fieldcommgroup.org/
URL of the standard specification https://fieldcommgroup.org/technologies/hart/hart-technology-detail
Frequency 2.4 GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 200m
Data Rate 250 kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star & Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single building
Security Communications are always encrypted in a HART network. The network uses a 128-bit AES encryption system. The security manager in the WirelessHART gateway administers three parameters: Network ID, Join key and Session key. In addition to individual session keys, a common network key is shared among all devices on a network to facilitate broadcast activity as needed. A separate 128-bit join encryption key is used to keep sent and received data private, during the joining process. The encryption cannot be disabled.
Common use Typical HART use cases are process industry monitoring (automotive production process, chemical segments, food and beverage, power generation); process optimization , safety enhancements , environment and health monitoring, maintenance optimization, etc.
Comments “HART” is an acronym for Highway Addressable Remote Transducer. The HART Protocol uses Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) standard to superimpose digital communication signals at a low level on top of the 4-20mA. This enables two-way field communication to take place and makes it possible for additional information beyond just the normal process variable to be communicated to/from a smart field instrument.
Wireless technology / standard IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n/ac
Organization that manages the technology / standard Wi-Fi Alliance
URL of the organization https://www.wi-fi.org/
URL of the standard specification https://www.wi-fi.org/discover-wi-fi/specifications
Frequency 2.4GHZ/5GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 50m
Data Rate Different data rates are enabled in IEEE 802.11 family of standards and their theoretical throughput is 11 Mbps ( IEEE 802.11b), 54 Mbps (IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g), 100 Mbps (IEEE 802.11n) or 300 Mbps (IEEE 802.11ac).
Power Draw High
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building
Security The Wi-Fi Alliance enables the implementation of different security solutions across Wi-Fi networks through the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) family of technologies. Simultaneously with Wi-Fi technology, deployable for personal and enterprise networks, security performances evolve too.

Today there are several available levels of security applicable to Wi-Fi networks that are formatted in WPA protocols, like WPA3 – Personal, WPA3 – Enterprise, WPA2, Open Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi enhanced open.

Common use Typical Wi Fi use cases are use cases are audio/video streaming applications, centralized management applications, video monitoring ad security systems, etc. Networking of multiple devices such as cameras, lights and switches, monitors, sensors and many others is enabled with this technology.
Comments The Wi-Fi represents wireless technology that includes the IEEE 802.11 family of standards (IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11n, IEEE 802.11ac, etc.). Within the 50m range, it operates in 2.4 GHz and 5GHz frequency bands.

This technology has been developed for wireless networking of computer devices and is commonly called WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), where the communication is realized between wireless routers typically connected to the Internet and other wireless nodes within its range.

Wireless technology / standard IEEE 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow )
Organization that manages the technology / standard IEEE
URL of the organization https://www.ieee.org
URL of the standard specification https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_11ah-2016.html
Frequency 900MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 900m
Data Rate 347Mbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building, campus, WAN
Security Security is typically based on WPA 3 protocol with available personal and enterprise solutions.
Common use Some representative IEEE 802.11ah use cases are health care, outdoor activities, smart metering, environmental sensing, home security, smart homes and buildings, power management, industrial automation, etc.
Comments A Wi-Fi HaLow (IEEE 802.11ah) standard works at 900 MHz frequency band in the USA and significantly improves wireless coverage and energy efficiency as one of the most important features for IoT use cases. Wi-Fi HaLow devices have instant internet access like in traditional Wi-Fi networks. Wi-Fi HaLow has better wall penetration and range than Wi-Fi because it uses the lower 900MHz frequency band.
Wireless technology / standard IEEE 802.15.4
Organization that manages the technology / standard IEEE
URL of the organization https://www.ieee.org//
URL of the standard specification https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_15_4s-2018.html
Frequency 2.4GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 100m
Data Rate ≈ 20 kbps and 40 kbps (BPSK ), ≈ 250 kbps (O-QPSK with DSSS)
Power Draw Low
Topology Star, Mesh,  peer-to-peer
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building
Security The IEEE 802.15.4 standard protects information at the Medium Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the OSI Reference Model. The implemented cryptographic mechanism in this standard is based on the symmetric-key cryptography and uses keys that are provided by higher layer processes. The establishment and maintenance of these keys are outside the scope of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The cryptography mechanism assumes a secure implementation of  cryptographic operations and secure and authentic  storage of keying material. Used encryption algorithm is 128 bits AES.
Common use Typical use cases are smart  homes and buildings i.e. home security,  lighting control, air conditioning and heating systems; industrial automation; automotive sensing; education; consumer electronic devices and personal computer accessories.
Comments The IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines the
interconnection protocol for the low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). This standard provides short range wireless communications between battery – powered nodes. The power consumption in IEEE 802.15.4 nodes is typically very low.
Wireless technology / standard IEEE 802.16 (WiMax)
Organization that manages the technology / standard IEEE
URL of the organization https://www.ieee.org
URL of the standard specification http://wimaxforum.org/TechSpec
Frequency 2.3 GHz,  3.5 GHz, 5.8GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 50km
Data Rate 40Mbit/s – mobile, 1 Gbit/s – fixed
Power Draw High
Topology PMP
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use MAN
Security Different security solutions are enabled in WiMax networks, like Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with 128-bit key: Rivest, Shamir and Adelman (RSA) with 1024-bit key and Triple Digital Encryption Standard (3-DES).Both Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Triple Digital Encryption Standard (3-DES) are symmetric encryption algorithms using a block-cipher method. Rivest, Shamir and Adelman (RSA) is an asymmetrical algorithm.

The air interface in IEEE 802.16 networks is secured by authentication procedures, secure key exchange and encapsulation . With encapsulating data from authorized users, the  base station limits the access of unauthorized users. Besides, it supports the Privacy Key Management (PKM) protocol for secure two-layer-key distribution and exchange and real-time confirmation of subscribers’ identification, which ensures secure wireless data transport.

Common use WiMax applicability is recognized in wireless MAN deployment, provisioning of Internet connectivity and generic user applications, environmental monitoring, smart cities , telemedicine etc.
Comments IEEE 802.16 technology has been put forward to overcome the drawbacks of WLANs and mobile networks. It provides different QoS scheduling for supporting heterogeneous traffic including legacy voice traffic, VoIP (Voice over IP), voice and video streams and the Internet data traffic. The prominent features of WiMAX include: quality of service, high-speed Internet, facility over a long distance, scalability, security, and mobility.
Wireless technology / standard Insteon
Organization that manages the technology / standard Smartlabs
URL of the organization https://www.insteon.com/
URL of the standard specification https://www.insteon.com/technology#ourtechnology
Frequency 915MHz ( USA)
869.85 MHz (EU)
921.00 MHz (Australia)
Approximate Range ≈ 50m
Data Rate 38400bps – via RF
13165bps – via powerlines
Power Draw Low or battery free (plug-in)
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single building
Security Insteon network security is maintained via linking control to ensure that users cannot create links that would allow them to control a neighbors’ Insteon devices, and via encryption within extended Insteon messages for applications such as door locks and security applications, should those applications choose to implement encryption.

Insteon enforces linking control by requiring users to have physical possession of devices, or knowledge of their unique Insteon IDs in order to create links. Firmware in Insteon devices prohibits them from identifying themselves to other devices unless a user either physically presses a button on the device during the installation process or explicitly addresses the device via a central controller. Linking to a device by sending Insteon messages (e.g., from a central controller) requires knowledge of the address of the target Insteon device. As these addresses are unique for each device and assigned at the factory (and displayed on a printed label attached to each device), users must have physical access to the device to read the device address from the label and manually enter it when prompted during installation.

Common use INSTEON is optimized for home and office automation and allows networking of different devices like light switches, thermostats, home audio, remote controls, leak sensors, pumps,
motion sensors, alarms, HVAC systems, security sensors or different remote controls.
Comments INSTEON allows home automation devices to communicate through power lines, radio frequencies or a combination of both.

All INSTEON devices are known as peers. This is because any device can transmit, receive, or repeat the messages from other devices. In doing this, devices neither require any master device controller nor any routing software. More are the devices in the INSTEON network, more stronger is the INSTEON signal.

Wireless technology / standard ISA100.11a
Organization that manages the technology / standard ISA
URL of the organization https://www.isa.org
URL of the standard specification https://www.isa.org/pdfs/2008-seminar/ISA100_Overview_Oct_2008/
Frequency 2.4 GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 100m
Data Rate ≈ 250 kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star, Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building
Security ISA 100.11a standard is embedded with integrity checks and optional encryption at data link layer of the OSI reference model. Moreover, security mechanisms are provided in transport layer. too. 128 bits keys are used in both transport and data link layers. A shared global key, a private symmetric key or certificate are necessary for a sensor node to join a ISA 100.11a network.
Common use The most important use cases are reliable monitoring and alerting, asset management, predictive maintenance and condition monitoring, open – loop control and closed loop control industrial applications.
Comments ISA 100.11a low data rate connectivity is supported with increased security and system management levels.  In compliance with best practices, optimal number of nodes in the network is 50-100.
Wireless technology / standard LoRa
Organization that manages the technology / standard LoRa Alliance
URL of the organization https://www.lora-alliance.org/
URL of the standard specification https://lora-alliance.org/resource-hub/lorawanr-specification-v11
Frequency License-free sub-gigahertz radio frequency bands like 433 MHz, 868 MHz, 915 MHz, 923 MHz .
Approximate Range ≈ 30km
Data Rate 50kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security Based on security for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks, AES encryption with the key exchange is implemented in LoRa. In higher OSI levels  built over the LoRa PHY layer, two layers of security are utilized – one for the network and one for the application layer. The network layer security ensures the authenticity of the device in the network, while the application layer security ensures that the network operator does not have access to the end user’s application data.
Common use Typical LoRa use cases are power metering , water flow, gas or similar quantitative monitoring; logistics and transportation monitoring; smart home, office and smart city appliances; environmental sensing like  air pollution, flooding, avalanche, forest fires; smart security systems, agriculture and industrial automatization,  and low-cost private networks with modest throughput requirements as an alternative to commercial networks.
Comments LoRa provides wireless, low-cost and secure bi-directional communication for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. LoRa is optimized for long range communication, low power consumption and is designed to support large networks deployment.

LoRa is built using Semtech’s LoRa modulation scheme. LoRa is the PHY layer for a LPWAN technology that uses Chirp Spread Spectrum to send data from one point to another.

LoRaWAN is different from LoRa – it is a media access control (MAC)-layer protocol built on top of LoRa PHY layer .

Wireless technology / standard LoRaWAN
Organization that manages the technology / standard LoRa Alliance
URL of the organization https://www.lora-alliance.org
URL of the standard specification https://lora-alliance.org/resource-hub/lorawanr-specification-v11
Frequency 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe), 915 MHz (Australia and North America) and 923 MHz (Asia)
Approximate Range ≈ 15km
Data Rate ≈ 0.3-50 kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star of Stars
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security The fundamental properties that are supported in LoRaWAN security are mutual authentication, integrity protection and confidentiality.

Mutual authentication is established between a LoRaWAN end-device and the LoRaWAN network as part of the network join procedure. This ensures that only  authorized devices will be joined to  authentic networks. LoRaWAN MAC and application messaging are origin authenticated, integrity protected, replay protected  and encrypted. Moreover, LoRaWAN supports  end-to-end encryption  between the sensor nodes and application servers.

Common use Some representative LoRaWAN use cases are smart homes and buildings, smart city applications and utility companies , smart metering, agriculture,  civil infrastructures and industrial facilities as well.
Comments LoRaWAN is a Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology. It provides wireless, low-cost and secure bi-directional communication for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. LoRaWAN is optimized for long range communication, low power consumption and is designed to support large networks deployment.
Wireless technology / standard LTE-MTC Cat 0
Organization that manages the technology / standard 3GPP
URL of the organization https://www.3gpp.org/
URL of the standard specification https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/WORK_PLAN/Description_Releases/
Frequency LTE technology frequency bands  are used LTE-MTC Cat 0 (700MHz, 800 MHz, 900MHz, 1700MHz, 1800MHz, 1900MHz, 2300MHz, 2400MHz, 2500MHz, 2700MHz).
Approximate Range Range is variable and depends on frequency bands, propagation conditions etc. typically it is ≈ 10km
Data Rate ≈  1 Mbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security  System and security management is more complex in LTE-MTC compared to LTE, as there are massive numbers of devices in LTE MTC network.  At the same time, the request defined in 3GPP TS 22.368 is “LTE MTC optimizations shall not degrade security compared to non-MTC communications”.
Common use LTE MTC can be applicable to various use cases including industrial automation and control, intelligent transportation, automatic meter reading, smart electricity distribution and management,  smart homes/offices/shops, smart lighting, smart industrial plants, smart water supply, environmental monitoring, public safety and e-health.
Comments LTE-MTC Cat 0 (LTE machine type communications) is determined in 3GPP Rel. 12 specification.
Wireless technology / standard LTE-M (Cat M1, Cat M2 ) – eMTC
Organization that manages the technology / standard 3GPP
URL of the organization https://www.3gpp.org/
URL of the standard specification https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/WORK_PLAN/Description_Releases/
Frequency LTE technology frequency bands  are used  for LTE-M Cat M1 and Cat M2 (400MHz 450MHz, 600MHz, 700MHz, 800MHz, 900MHz, 1400MHz, 1500MHz, 1700MHz, 1800MHz, 1900MHz, 2100MHz, 2300MHz, 2400MHz, 2500MHz, 2600MHz, 2700 MHz).
Approximate Range Range is variable and depends on frequency bands, propagation conditions etc. typically it is ≈ 10km
Data Rate LTE-M Cat M1 ≈  1 Mbps
LTE-M Cat M2 ≈  4 Mbps DL /  ≈  7 Mbps UL
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security LTE-M technology offers SIM-based security features requiring device authentication to connect to the network. Although it shares the  LTE security standards, security system and  management is more complex in LTE-M (eMTC) due to massive connectivity that is supported in  LTE-M (eMTC) networks .
Common use LTE M (eMTC) technology supports many use cases, like smart cities, smart agriculture, logistics and transportation, industry and manufacturing automation.
Comments LTE-M Cat M1 is specified by 3GPP Rel.13 and  LTE-M  Cat M2 is specified by 3GPP Rel.14. Voice over LTE (VoLTE) is usable on LTE- eMTC communications. Two new features are enabled in eMTC, like  extended Discontinuous Reception (eDRX), and Power Saving Mode (PSM). The former allows longer paging cycles, while the latter allows nodes to be inactive for an indefinite period of time. Both aim at reducing the power consumption. eMTC also supports handover, which makes it usable when considering mobile IoT applications.
Wireless technology / standard mcThings
Organization that manages the technology / standard mcThings
URL of the organization https://www.mcthings.com/
URL of the standard specification https://www.mcthings.com/platform/
Frequency 2.4GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 200m
Data Rate 50kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building
Security mcThings technology is embedded with 128 bits AES encryption algorithm.
Common use Some representative mcThings use cases are asset tracking, industrial automation, maintenance optimization, location monitoring, security systems (theft and loss prevention),  status monitoring, agriculture and food industry automation, environmental monitoring (temperature, humidity, air quality, etc.), smart cities, etc.
Comments mcThings is a good solution for use-cases that have sets of sensors in some urban areas (neighboring buildings). The technology is power efficient and requires minimal maintenance efforts. Network is expandable with bridges, and sensors have long-life batteries (up to 10 years).
Wireless technology / standard MiWi
Organization that manages the technology / standard Microchip Technology
URL of the organization http://www.microchip.com/
URL of the standard specification http://www.microchip.com/design-centers/wireless-connectivity/embedded-wireless/802-15-4/miwi-protocol
Frequency 2.4GHz, 700MHz/800MHz/900MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 300m
Data Rate 20kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Mesh or Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building
Security The MiWi protocol follows the MAC security definition specified in IEEE 802.15.4 and is based on 128-bit AES model. MiWi security mechanisms can be categorized into three groups:
• AES-CTR mode encrypts MiWi protocol payload.
• AES-CBC-MAC mode ensures the integrity of the MiWi protocol packet.
• AES-CCM mode combines the previous two security modes to ensure both the integrity of the frame and encrypt the MiWi protocol payload.
Common use MiWi is designed for low-power, cost-constrained networks, such as industrial monitoring and control, home and building automation, remote control, wireless sensors, lighting control, HVAC systems and automated meter reading.
Comments MiWi uses small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Although the MiWi software can all be downloaded for free from its official website, it is a proprietary solution that requires use only with Microchip microcontrollers. It was created for short-range networks and designed to help customers reduce their products’ time to market values.
Wireless technology / standard MiOTY
Organization that manages the technology / standard Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits  & BTI Ltd. Toronto
URL of the organization https://www.iis.fraunhofer.de/en/pr/2018/20181016_LV_Mioty.html

https://behrtech.com/

URL of the standard specification https://behrtech.com/mioty/
Frequency 915Mhz (USA),
868Mhz (EU)
Approximate Range ≈ 20km
Data Rate 407 bps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security MiOTY technology  implements 128-bit  AES encryption.
Common use Some MiOTY use cases are optimized maintenance models, inventory optimization for parts, asset management and tracking, condition and environmental monitoring, smart metering, augmented reality innovative applications, product R&D, improved customer support, etc.
Comments MIOTY is a low-power, wide-area network (LPWAN) protocol that is purpose-built for massive industrial and commercial IoT deployments. Fraunhofer’s patented Telegram Splitting – the core of the MIOTY protocol, is designed to provide the scalability and  overcome interference and mobility issues of  existing  wireless IoT technologies.
Wireless technology / standard NB-IoT – Narrowband-IoT (LTE Cat NB1 and LTE Cat NB2)
Organization that manages the technology / standard 3GPP
URL of the organization https://www.3gpp.org/
URL of the standard specification https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/WORK_PLAN/Description_Releases/

https://www.3gpp.org/news-events/1785-nb_iot_complete

Frequency In-band LTE carrier, or within LTE guard bands, or standalone in re-farmed GSM spectrum – 700, 800 or 900 MHz.

The 3GPP Release 14 introduced five new FDD frequency bands for NB-IoT: 11 (central frequencies  – UL 1437.9 MHz, DL 1485.9 MHz), 21  (central frequencies – UL 1455.4 MHz, DL 1503.4 MHz), 25 (central frequencies  – UL 1882.5 MHz, DL 3962.5 MHz), 31 (central frequencies  – UL 455 MHz, DL 465 MHz), and 70 (central frequencies  – UL 1702.5 MHz, DL 2007.5 MHz).

Approximate Range Range is variable and depends on frequency bands, propagation conditions etc. typically it is better than LTE-M coverage.
Data Rate LTE Cat NB1  ≈ 66 kbps (multi-tone) and ≈ 16.9 Kbit/s (single-tone)

LTE Cat NB2 ≈ 159kbps

Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security Multilayer security is applied in NB-IoT- network level and application level security, including support for user identity confidentiality, entity authentication, data integrity, and mobile device identification.
Common use Some NB – IoT use cases are smart metering (electricity, gas and water), facility management services, security systems, connected personal appliances measuring health parameters tracking of persons, animals or objects, smart city and industrial appliances.
Comments NB-IoT is is determined in 3GPP Rel. 13 specification (LTE Cat NB1) and 3GPP Rel. 14 specification (LTE Cat NB2).

NB-IoT has good indoor coverage and supports  a massive number of low throughput end devices – sensors. It has low delay sensitivity, low device power consumption, optimized network architecture and it is cost – effective. LTE Cat NB2 has improved features like throughput, higher location accuracy, multicast transmission mode, enhanced mobility, new 14 dBm power class and support for multi-carrier mode with up to 15 non-anchor carriers, which can support up to 1,000,000 connected NB-IoT devices per square kilometer.

Wireless technology / standard Neul
Organization that manages the technology / standard Neul
URL of the organization http://www.neul.com/neul/

https://www.iotone.com/supplier/neul-huawei/v2316?desktop=true

URL of the standard specification https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/eleven-internet-of-things-iot-protocols-you-need-to-know-about
Frequency 900MHz (ISM), 458MHz (UK), 470-790MHz (White Space)
Approximate Range ≈ 10km
Data Rate up to 100kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security The wireless communications links between the gateway (base station)  and the network nodes are encrypted.
Common use The Neul communications technology  is  a wide-area wireless networking technology designed for the IoT and created to compete against existing cellular communications technologies  solutions, applicable to smart metering, facility management services, security systems,  logistics and transportation, industrial automation etc.
Comments Neul leverages very small slices of the TV White Space spectrum to deliver high scalability, high coverage, low power and low-cost wireless networks. Systems are based on the Iceni chip, which communicates using the white space radio to access the high-quality UHF spectrum,  available due to the analogue to digital TV transition. Devices can consume as little as 20 to 30mA from 2xAA batteries, meaning 10 to 15 years in the field. Neul has some old and new standard versions (obsolete Neul version is Weightless-W, Weightless-P is the last one).
Wireless technology / standard NFC
Organization that manages the technology / standard NFC
URL of the organization http://nfc-forum.org/
URL of the standard specification https://nfc-forum.org/our-work/specification-releases/specifications/nfc-forum-technical-specifications/
Frequency 13.56MHz (ISM)
Approximate Range ≈ 10cm
Data Rate 106kbps, 212kbps, 424kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Point to point
Requires hub or gateway No
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building
Security One of the security mechanisms implemented in NFC is Digital Signature (defined in the NFC Forum Signature RTD 2.0) with asymmetric key exchange [RD]. The Digital Signature is a part of the NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) message, which includes also a Certificate Chain and a Root Certificate. Moreover, each NFC device has a private and a public key.

Developed by HID – NFC tag manufacturer, another security mechanism is a Trusted Tag. It is fully compliant with NFC Forum Tag Type 4 and works with any NFC Forum compatible devices. The Trusted tag is protected from cloning and embedded with cryptographic code that is generated by every “tap” or click on NFC button. This cryptographic code protects the content of the transmitted information.

Common use Some representative NFC use cases are ticket confirmation for sports events, concerts, at theaters, cinemas; welfare performances improvement – syncing workout data from a fitness machines with personal user device; personalized content sharing – viewing special offers on your phone in museums, shopping malls and stores; loaders of translated content in different services, like menus in the restaurants;  check-in and check-out in hotels, airports etc. security systems – unlocking an NFC-enabled door locks, etc.
Comments NFC is a short range two-way wireless communication technology that enables simple and secure communication between electronic devices embedded with NFC microchip. There are three available modes of NFC communication:
– Read/write (e.g. for reading tags in NFC posters)
– Card emulation (e.g. for making payments)
– Peer-to-peer (e.g. for file transfers)
NFC technology is power efficient – much more than other wireless technologies.
Wireless technology / standard RFID
Organization that manages the technology / standard RFID
URL of the organization https://www.iso.org/
https://www.astm.org/
https://www.iec.ch/
URL of the standard specification A number of organizations have set standards for RFID, including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), ASTM International, etc.
RFID standards include: ISO 11784/11785, ISO 14223, ISO/IEC 14443, ISO/IEC 15693, ISO/IEC 18000, ISO/IEC 18092, ISO 18185, ISO/IEC 21481, ASTM D7434, ASTM D7435, ASTM D7580, ISO 28560-2https://rfid4u.com/rfid-basics-resources/basics-rfid-regulations/
Frequency 125 KHz to 134 kHz, 13.56MHz, 433 MHz, 860MHz – 960MHz.
Approximate Range 0.01m-10m (depending on the frequency range)
Data Rate 4kbps – 640kbps (depending on the active or passive type of device and frequency range).
Power Draw Low
Topology point to point
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single building
Security The implementation of security mechanisms in RFID technology is based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Confidentiality is the information protection from unauthorized access. Integrity is related to data protection from modification and deletion by unauthorized parties. Availability represents the capability for data access when needed.

If any of these mechanisms is not operational, the security is broken.

Common use Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology commonly used for identification, status administration and management of different objects. Moreover, this technology is very important for people identification, as it is deployed in the latest biometric passports. Some other typical use cases are access control, library books, personal ID cards, gaming chips, vehicle tracking, auto manufacturing, mining, construction, asset tracking.
Comments Commonly, a RFID system has three main components: RFID tag, RFID reader and RFID application software. RFID tags can be active (with microchip, antenna, sensors and power supply) or passive (without power supply). RFID reader is another hardware component that identifies a RFID tag and transmits its status to the RFID software application. RFID software applications (very often mobile applications) are responsible for monitoring and administering the RFID tags. They usually exchange information with RFID readers via different beacon technologies or Bluetooth.
Wireless technology / standard RPMA (Random Phase Multiple Access)
Organization that manages the technology / standard Ingenu
URL of the organization https://www.ingenu.com/technology/rpma/
URL of the standard specification https://www.ingenu.com/technology/rpma/how-rpma-works/
Frequency 2.4 GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 70km
Data Rate 100kb
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use WAN
Security Security in RPMA wireless technology  is built on 128 b AES. It offers security features such as: mutual authentication, message integrity and replay protection, message confidentiality, device anonymity, authentic firmware upgrades and secure multicasts.
Common use RPMA is applicable for many use cases such as asset tracking, agriculture, oil fields automation, environmental monitoring, smart city, fleet management and logistics, industrial automation, connected cars, etc.
Comments Before IoT, Ingenu (previously OnRamp) was selling metering infrastructure that collected low power information from electricity meters.
Ingenu has created random phase multiple access (RPMA), which uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and is similar to code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular protocols.
Wireless technology / standard Sigfox
Organization that manages the technology / standard SigFox
URL of the organization https://www.sigfox.com/en
URL of the standard specification https://build.sigfox.com/sigfox-device-radio-specifications
Frequency The Sigfox technology globally works within the ranges from 862 to 928 MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 40km
Data Rate 600bps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use WAN
Security Security  first comes within devices  During the manufacturing process, each Sigfox Ready device is provisioned with a symmetrical authentication key. Security is also supported by radio technology. The SigFox technology encryption  is designed in collaboration with CEA-LETI institute, specifically for use with short Sigfox messages. In compliance with customers requests,  end-to-end encryption solutions are applicable to the SigFox networks.
Common use SIGFOX applicability potential is great. Some representative use cases are supply chain & logistics automation, manufacturing automation, smart cities, smart buildings and smart utilities & energy management and monitoring, smart agriculture etc.
Comments SIGFOX protocol is a patented and closed technology. While it’s hardware is open, the network however isn’t and customers must be subscribed to it. Note that while there are strict limitations of SIGFOX in terms of throughput and utilization, it is intended for systems sending small and infrequent bursts of data. Data for various sensors can typically fit within these constraints.
Wireless technology / standard Thread
Organization that manages the technology / standard Thread Group (Google, Samsung, etc.)
URL of the organization https://www.threadgroup.org/
URL of the standard specification https://portal.threadgroup.org/DesktopModules/Inventures_Document/FileDownload.aspx?ContentID=3014
Frequency 2.4GHz
Approximate Range ≈ 30m
Data Rate 250kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building
Security Thread utilizes a network-wide key that is used at the Media Access Layer (MAC) for encryption. This key is used for standard IEEE 802.15.4 authentication and encryption. IEEE 802.15.4 security protects the Thread network from over-the-air attacks originating from outside the network.  Each node in the Thread network exchanges frame counters with its neighbors via an MLE handshake. These frame counters help protect against replay attacks. Thread allows the application to use any internet security protocol for end-to-end communication.
Common use Thread provides wireless connectivity for home automation via the control of lights – smart bulbs and outlets, smoke detectors, cameras and other security systems, thermostats,  utilities measurements, smart digital locks, hubs and controllers, different gateways, thermostats, smoke detectors, etc.
Comments Thread was designed with the Internet’s proven, open standards to create an Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) based mesh network, with 6LoWPAN as its foundation.

Thread  can  securely connect up to 250 devices in a wireless mesh network .

Wireless technology / standard Wavenis
Organization that manages the technology / standard Coronis Systems
URL of the organization http://www.coronis.com
URL of the standard specification http://www-coronis-com.dyn.elster.com/downloads/Wavenis_Data_Sheet_A4_CS5.pdf
Frequency 433MHz, 868MHz, 915MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 1000m
Data Rate 9.6kbps (433 & 868MHz) / 19.2kbps (915MHz)
Power Draw Low
Topology Tree, Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security Wavenis technology is supported by 128-bit  AES encryption.
Common use Some Wavenis use cases are different  metering solutions (gas, electricity, water, etc.) applicable to environmental monitoring, smart cities, utilities companies etc.
Comments Wavenis is a wireless technology created by Coronis in the year 2000. It is developed for ultra low power and long range Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs). It has become popular due to promotion by Wavenis Open Standard Alliance.
Wireless technology / standard WAVIoT (NB-Fi – Narrowband Fidelity)
Organization that manages the technology / standard WAVIoT
URL of the organization https://waviot.com/
URL of the standard specification https://www.cnx-software.com/2016/01/20/waviot-lpwan-technology-powers-low-cost-smart-water-and-electricity-meters/
Frequency 315MHz, 433MHz, 470MHz, 868MHz, 915MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 50km
Data Rate 10-100bps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security All WAVIoT data is encrypted bidirectionally from the device to the server using an XTEA  256 bit key block cipher.
Common use Typical WAViOT use cases are smart cities, smart buildings, smart metering, utilities monitoring and metering like water, power – electricity, gas, heat, etc.
Comments NB-Fi (Narrowband Fidelity) is a narrow band protocol which communicates on the sub 1GHz ISM sub bands. DBPSK is used as the modulation scheme in the physical layer. WAVIoT gateways can provide -154 dBm of receiver sensitivity, and cover over 1 million nodes. On WAVIoT-developed devices, short data bursts  use 50mA of current, and in idle mode – a few µA are used. Devices have a lifetime of up to 20 years, and a 176 dBm link budget.
Wireless technology / standard Weightless (W, N, P)
Organization that manages the technology / standard Weightless Special Interest Group
URL of the organization http://www.weightless.org/
URL of the standard specification http://www.weightless.org/about/weightless-specification
Frequency 138MHz, 433MHz, 470MHz, 780MHz, 868MHz, 915MHz, 923MHz
Approximate Range ≈ 2km (P), 5km (W, N)
Data Rate ≈ 600bps-100kbps
Power Draw Low (N), medium (W, P)
Topology Star
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security In Weightless standard AES-128/256 encryption and authentication of both the terminal and the network guarantees integrity whilst temporary device identifiers offer anonymity for maximum security and privacy. OTA security key negotiation or replacement is possible whilst a future-proof cipher negotiation scheme with a minimum key length of 128 bits protects long term investment in the network integrity.
Common use Typical Weightless use cases are smart metering,  vehicle tracking, asset tracking, smart cars – vehicle diagnostics and upgrades, health monitoring, traffic sensors, smart appliances, rural broadband, smart ePayment infrastructure, industrial machine monitoring, temperature readings, tank level monitoring, metering, and more.
Comments The Weightless Special Interest Group (SIG) offers three different protocols— Weightless-N, Weightless-W, and Weightless-P.

Weightless-W open standard is designed to operate in the TV white space (TVWS) spectrum. Weightless-W represents a model the Neul was trying to develop before they were acquired by Huawei.

Weightless-N is an ultra-narrowband system that is very similar to SigFox and  initially developed by Nwave  . It uses the differential BPSK modulation in narrow frequency channels, and is intended for uplink sensor data.

Weightless-P is the latest Weightless technology. It offers two-way features and supports quality of service. Weightless – P uses Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) as a  standard modulation, and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), which is much more advanced.

Wireless technology / standard Wi-SUN
Organization that manages the technology / standard IETF
URL of the organization https://ietf.org/
URL of the standard specification https://tools.ietf.org/id/draft-heile-lpwan-wisun-overview-00.html
Frequency 470-510MHz, 779-787MHz, 920.5-924.5MHz (China),
863-870MHz, 870-876MHz (EU),
920-928MHz (USA, Canada and Japan)
Approximate Range ≈ 1000m
Data Rate 300kbps
Power Draw Low
Topology Star, Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use WAN
Security The Wi-SUN security is specified by implementation of  the x.509 certificate-based, public-key infrastructure to authenticate devices, as well as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption and message integrity check.

Devices protect their digital credentials either by storing them in hardened cryptographic processors that are resistant to physical tampering or by using physically unclonable function (PUF) technology.

Common use Some typical Wi-Sun use cases are smart metering, smart cities, smart buildings, industrial automation, environmental sensing, etc.
Comments The term Wi-Sun is the short form of Wireless Smart Utility Network. Wi-Sun technology  is a successful derivation of  IEEE 802.15.4 wireless standard that supports IPv6 protocol.
Wireless technology / standard ZigBee
Organization that manages the technology / standard ZigBee Alliance
URL of the organization http://www.ZigBee.org/
URL of the standard specification https://zigbeealliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/docs-05-3474-21-0csg-zigbee-specification.pdf
Frequency 2.4GHz, 915MHz (US), 868 MHz (EU)
Approximate Range 30-100m
Data Rate 250 kbps (2.4GHz) 40kbps (915MHz) 20kbps (868MHz)
Power Draw Low
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Open
Intended Use Single Building
Security ZigBee is considered to be a secure wireless communication protocol, with security architecture built in accordance with IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Security mechanisms include authentication – authorized access to network devices, integrity protection and encryption with key establishment and transportation.

Device authentication is the procedure of confirming a new device that joins the network as authentic. The new device must be able to receive a network key and set proper attributes within a given time frame to be considered authenticated. Device authentication is performed by the Trust Center.
Integrity protection is realized on the frame level using message integrity checks (MIC) to protect the transmitted frames and ensure they are not accessed and manipulated. A 128-bits symmetric-key cryptography is implemented in ZigBee’s security architecture.

Common use Some representative ZigBee use cases are correlated with smart homes and smart buildings applications, like different smart home gateways, sensors and alarms that are monitoring almost everything – from temperature, humidity, or lighting and movement, smart plugs and relays, power and water consumption and other utilities measurements, etc.
Comments ZigBee is wireless PAN (Personal Area Network) technology evolved from IEEE 802.15.4 wireless standard and supported by the ZigBee Alliance. IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines the physical and data link layer with all details about the robust radio communication and medium access control. ZigBee Alliance provides content standardization of the transmitted messages from network layer to application layer. It is a non-profit association, responsible for open global ZigBee standard development and interoperability.
Wireless technology / standard Z-Wave
Organization that manages the technology / standard Z-wave alliance
URL of the organization http://www.z-wave.com/
URL of the standard specification https://z-wavealliance.org/z-wave-specification/
Frequency 915MHz (USA) 868MHz (EU)
Approximate Range 30-100m
Data Rate 40kbps (915MHz) and 20kbps (868MHz)
Power Draw Low
Topology Mesh
Requires hub or gateway Yes
Proprietary or Open Proprietary
Intended Use Single Building
Security Z-wave provides packet encryption, integrity protection and device authentication services. End-to-end security is provided on application level (communication using command classes). It has in-band network key exchange and AES symmetric block cipher algorithm using 128-bit key length.
Common use It is a wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation. Important Z-wave use cases are smart homes and buildings, smart offices, smart sensors, smart wall switches, smart bulbs,  thermostats, windows, locks and security systems, swimming pools and garage door openers etc.
Comments Z-Wave protocol was developed by Sigma Designs, Inc. and determined by ITU G.9959 recommendation. Like other protocols and systems developed for the home and office automation , a Z-Wave system can be controlled via the Internet from a smart phone, tablet or computer.

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